Technical guidelines for restoration and reintroduction of the Bukhara deer in its natural environment. - 2012
Single-species conservation strategies comprising a scientific and organizational foundation of species conservation is an important approach to the conservation of rare animals. In a narrower (and more pragmatic) sense of the term, strategy is a scientific and technical policy document built according to a certain order that declares principles, goals, and mechanisms of long-term programmes and action plans for the conservation of rare and endangered animals comprising the whole range of required measures (strategy elements) to provide implementation of such programmes.
An important element of a strategy is a description, analysis, and evaluation of biological characteristics of the species (numbers; range structure; evidence of biological specialization; breeding success and mortality; sex, age, and social structure of the population; reaction to habitat alterations; reaction to disturbance (degree of anthropofobia), mobility (including seasonal and other migrations); economic value of the species.
Another strategy element is a characteristic, analysis and evaluation of threats to the species and constraints.
Baseline strategy elements include five main forms of protection:
- legal protection that provides a regulatory framework of species conservation;
- territorial protection aimed at ecosystem conservation, restoration and, in some cases, expansion of the species range owing to an enhancement of the protected area network, including the establishment of reserved zones and migration corridors (conservation at the levels of ecosystems and species);
- breeding groups of animals (at the levels of species and individuals) ex situ, at specialized animal nurseries/breeding centers and zoos in order to conserve the gene pool;
- establishment of reserve livestock of animals for reintroduction to nature (repatriation) and in order to reduce the pressure of economic utilization to natural populations;
- reintroduction (repatriation) of animals bred in nurseries in order to support deteriorating and restore extinct populations, or, in some cases, to establish new populations (conservation at the population and species levels);
- conservation of genetic material in gene banks (gametal and somatic cells for long-term storage) (species conservation at the cellular level).
Additional (optional) elements of a strategy used as special mechanisms or measures to support, optimize and enhance the efficiency of baseline elements of the conservation strategy of rare species comprise two groups: measures optimizing relations between humans and rare species; and various forms of environmental education and awareness raising.
When combined, all elements of the strategy provide fundamental protection of the species at key levels of life - cellular (gametal and somatic cells), individual (an animal or a group of animals), population (natural population), specie– (the focal biological species), ecosystem (species as an element of ecosystem). Only such a complex approach provides conservation and integrity of all the most important biological parameters of a species and its mere survival (Flint 2004).
Released at October 2012
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